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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
x QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2021
or
o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from________to________
Commission File Number: 001-39748
PUBMATIC, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware20-5863224
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
Not applicableNot applicable
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Not applicable
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Not applicable
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value per sharePUBMThe Nasdaq Global Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
o
Accelerated filer
o
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
o
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No x
As of July 31, 2021, the registrant had 19,838,563 shares of Class A common stock outstanding and 30,521,626 shares of Class B common stock outstanding.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.


Table of Contents

PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
PUBMATIC, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except par values and share data)
(Unaudited)
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
ASSETS
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$90,620 $81,188 
Marketable securities31,370 19,793 
Accounts receivable - net 195,428 219,511 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets14,170 6,622 
Total Current Assets331,588 327,114 
Property, equipment and software - net43,601 30,044 
Goodwill6,250 6,250 
Deferred income tax asset495 762 
Other assets, non-current1,844 7,076 
TOTAL ASSETS$383,778 $371,246 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Current Liabilities
Accounts payable$162,576 $176,731 
Accrued liabilities13,780 14,844 
Total Current Liabilities176,356 191,575 
Deferred tax liability2,552 1,561 
Other liabilities, non-current2,789 2,683 
TOTAL LIABILITIES181,697 195,819 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 6)
Stockholders' Equity
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share, 10,000,000 shares authorized as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020; No shares issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020
  
Common stock, par value $0.0001 per share; 1,000,000,000 Class A shares authorized as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020; 19,649,956 and 6,801,368 shares issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively; 1,000,000,000 Class B shares authorized as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020; 30,592,870 and 42,186,774 shares issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
6 6 
Treasury stock, at cost - 3,140,437 and 3,139,295 shares as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
(11,486)(11,434)
Additional paid-in capital156,031 144,163 
Accumulated other comprehensive income 1 
Retained earnings57,530 42,691 
Total Stockholders' Equity202,081 175,427 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY$383,778 $371,246 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
1

Table of Contents
PUBMATIC, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Revenue$49,658 $26,361 $93,266 $54,709 
Cost of revenue13,088 9,189 25,388 19,245 
Gross profit36,570 17,172 67,878 35,464 
Operating expenses:
Technology and development3,860 2,971 7,599 5,890 
Sales and marketing13,997 9,236 26,786 19,231 
General and administration8,580 4,236 16,719 8,584 
Total operating expenses26,437 16,443 51,104 33,705 
Operating income10,133 729 16,774 1,759 
Interest income67 132 129 392 
Other income (expense), net(306)(124)(168)(109)
Total other income (expense), net(239)8 (39)283 
Income before income taxes9,894 737 16,735 2,042 
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes(27)84 1,896 483 
Net income$9,921 $653 $14,839 $1,559 
Net income per share attributable to common stockholders:
Basic$0.20 $ $0.30 $ 
Diluted$0.18 $ $0.26 $ 
Weighted-average shares used to compute net income per share attributable to common stockholders:
Basic49,578,536 10,106,560 49,345,202 10,099,356 
Diluted56,428,211 14,064,502 56,607,701 14,010,723 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
2

Table of Contents
PUBMATIC, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Net income$9,921 $653 $14,839 $1,559 
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities, net of tax (17)(1)3 
Comprehensive income$9,921 $636 $14,838 $1,562 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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PUBMATIC, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In thousands, except share data)
(Unaudited)

Convertible Preferred StockRedeemable Common StockCommon StockTreasury StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Retained EarningsTotal Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance — December 31, 2020 $  $ 48,988,142 $6 $(11,434)$144,163 $1 $42,691 $175,427 
Stock-based compensation3,318 3,318 
Exercise of stock options278,412 — 451 451 
Repurchase of treasury stock, at cost(693)— (27)(27)
Other comprehensive loss(1)(1)
Net income4,918 4,918 
Balance — March 31, 2021 $  $ 49,265,861 $6 $(11,461)$147,932 $ $47,609 $184,086 
Stock-based compensation3,837 3,837 
Exercise of stock options800,426 — 1,627 1,627 
Repurchase of treasury stock, at cost(449)(25)(25)
Issuance of common stock related to employee stock purchase plan155,015 — 2,635 2,635 
Issuance of common stock related to RSU vesting21,973 — — — 
Other comprehensive loss— — 
Net income9,921 9,921 
Balance — June 30, 2021 $  $ 50,242,826 $6 $(11,486)$156,031 $ $57,530 $202,081 
Convertible Preferred StockRedeemable Common StockCommon StockTreasury StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Retained EarningsTotal Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance — December 31, 201933,443,969 $61,216 5,901,863 $19,025 5,746,216 $1 $(11,431)$8,641 $6 $16,078 $13,295 
Stock-based compensation503 503 
Exercise of stock options58,452 — 74 74 
Other comprehensive income20 20 
Net income904 904 
Balance — March 31, 202033,443,969 $61,216 5,901,863 $19,025 5,804,668 $1 $(11,431)$9,218 $26 $16,982 $14,796 
Stock-based compensation505 505 
Other comprehensive loss(17)(17)
Net income653 653 
Balance — June 30, 202033,443,969 $61,216 5,901,863 $19,025 5,804,668 $1 $(11,431)$9,723 $9 $17,635 $15,937 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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PUBMATIC, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
Six Months Ended June 30,
20212020
CASH FLOW FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
Net Income$14,839 $1,559 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization9,688 7,396 
Stock-based compensation6,794 995 
Provision for doubtful accounts 319 
Deferred income taxes1,258 99 
Accretion of discount on marketable securities(28)(117)
Other2 (1)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable24,083 25,713 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(7,579)(1,287)
Accounts payable(15,125)(19,485)
Accrued expenses(275)(2,923)
Other liabilities, non-current 106 (246)
Net cash provided by operating activities33,763 12,022 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
Purchases of property and equipment(11,808)(7,393)
Capitalized software development costs(4,828)(4,196)
Purchases of marketable securities(32,551)(13,413)
Proceeds from sales of marketable securities 2,295 
Proceeds from maturities of marketable securities21,000 18,450 
Net cash used in investing activities(28,187)(4,257)
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
Proceeds from issuance of common stock for employee stock purchase plan2,635  
Proceeds from exercise of stock options2,078 74 
Payments for offering costs(805) 
Payments to acquire treasury stock(52) 
Net cash provided by financing activities3,856 74 
NET INCREASE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS9,432 7,839 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS - Beginning of period81,188 34,250 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS - End of period$90,620 $42,089 
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION:
Income taxes paid$3,588 $210 
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF NON-CASH INVESTING AND FINANCING INFORMATION:
Stock-based compensation capitalized as internal use software costs$361 $13 
Property and equipment included in accounts payable and accrued expenses$1,728 $1,959 
Capitalized software costs included in accounts payable and accrued expenses$705 $458 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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PUBMATIC, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to condensed consolidated financial statements
(Unaudited)
Note 1 - Organization and Description of Business
PubMatic, Inc. and subsidiaries (“Company” or “PubMatic”) was founded in 2006. The Company has offices in California, New York, Europe, Asia, and Australia. The Company provides a specialized cloud infrastructure platform that enables real-time programmatic advertising transactions. The purpose-built technology and infrastructure provides superior outcomes for both publishers and advertising leveraging an efficient design, machine learning, and data processing capabilities, with customer alignment and global omnichannel reach.
Note 2 – Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Fiscal Year
The Company’s fiscal year ends on December 31, and its fiscal quarters end on March 31, June 30, September 30, and December 31. References to fiscal year 2021, for example, refer to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.
Unaudited Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Information
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of PubMatic, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries, and have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) and following the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for interim reporting. As permitted under those rules, certain footnotes or other financial information that are normally required by GAAP can be condensed or omitted. These financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the Company’s annual financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, which are necessary for the fair statement of the Company’s financial information. These interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2021 or for any other interim period or for any other future year. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related financial information should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on March 26, 2021 (the “Annual Report”).
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of PubMatic, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Initial Public Offering
The Company’s registration statement on Form S-1 (the “IPO Registration Statement”) related to its initial public offering (“IPO”) was declared effective on December 8, 2020, and the Company’s Class A common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Market on December 9, 2020. On December 11, 2020, the Company completed its IPO, in which the Company sold 2,655,000 shares of Class A common stock at a price to the public of $20.00 per share. The Company received aggregate net proceeds of $45.0 million after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and offering costs. In connection with the IPO, all of the shares of convertible preferred stock outstanding automatically converted into an aggregate of 33,443,969 shares of Class B common stock.
Deferred offering costs consisted primarily of accounting, legal, and other fees related to the IPO. Prior to the IPO, all deferred offering costs were capitalized in prepaid expenses and other current assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Upon consummation of the IPO, the $4.4 million of deferred offering costs were
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reclassified to stockholders’ equity and recorded against the proceeds from the offering. No offering costs were capitalized as of June 30, 2021.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts of assets and liabilities reported, disclosures about contingent assets and liabilities, and reported amounts of revenue and expenses.
The Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis using historical experience and other factors and adjusts those estimates and assumptions when facts and circumstances dictate. Actual results could materially differ from those estimates and assumptions. Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in making assumptions and estimates, events and changes in circumstances arising after June 30, 2021, including those resulting from the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, may result in actual outcomes that differ from those contemplated by the Company’s assumptions and estimates.
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company recognizes and measures compensation expense for all stock-based payment awards granted to employees, directors, and nonemployees, including stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”), and the employee stock purchase plan (the “ESPP”) based on the fair value of the awards on the date of grant. The fair value of stock options and shares of common stock to be issued under the ESPP is estimated using the Black Scholes option pricing model. The grant date fair value of RSUs is based on the closing market price of the Company’s Class A common stock on the date of grant. The Black Scholes option pricing model is impacted by the fair value of the Company’s common stock, as well as changes in assumptions regarding a number of highly complex and subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to, the expected common stock price volatility over the term of the stock options, the expected term of the stock options, risk-free interest rates, and the expected dividend yield.
For additional information regarding stock-based compensation and the assumptions used for determining the fair value of stock options and ESPP awards, refer to Note 9 — “Stockholders’ Equity and Stock Option Plans.”
Concentration of Revenue and Accounts Receivable
The Company defines its revenue concentration based on revenue recognized from individual publishers. For the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, one publisher represented 17% and 21%, respectively, and 18% and 22% for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, of the Company’s revenue. As of June 30, 2021, three buyers accounted for 33%, 13% and 11%, respectively, of accounts receivable. As of December 31, 2020, four buyers accounted for 33%, 14%, 13% and 11%, respectively, of accounts receivable.
Net Income Per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders
Basic and diluted net income per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stock is computed in conformity with the two-class method required for participating securities. The Company considers the preferred stock as participating securities. Holders of participating securities do not have a contractual obligation to share in the Company’s losses. In accordance with the two-class method, earnings allocated to these participating securities and the related number of outstanding shares of the participating securities have been excluded from the computation of basic and diluted net income per share attributable to common stockholders.
Distributed and undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities are subtracted from net income in determining net income attributable to common stockholders. Basic net income per share is computed by dividing net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of the Company’s Class A and Class B common stock outstanding.
The diluted net income per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by giving effect to all dilutive securities. Diluted net income per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing the resulting net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of fully diluted common
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shares outstanding. During the periods when there is a net loss attributable to common stockholders, potentially dilutive common stock equivalents have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders as their effect is anti-dilutive.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019 the FASB issued ASU 2019-12—Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (ASU 2019-12). ASU 2019-12 simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to general principles in Topic 740 and clarifies and amends existing guidance for clarity and consistent application. Effective on January 1, 2021, the Company adopted this standard, which did not have a material impact on the condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
Under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”), the Company meets the definition of an emerging growth company (“EGC”) and can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards issued subsequent to the enactment of the JOBS Act until such time as those standards apply to private companies. The Company has elected to use this extended transition period under the JOBS Act until such time the Company is no longer considered to be an EGC. The adoption dates discussed below reflect this election. The Company expects to become a large accelerated filer on the last day of its fiscal year 2021 and will no longer qualify as an EGC and plans to revise the adoption dates accordingly in a subsequent filing.
In February 2016, FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases, which requires an entity to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on its balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. The guidance offers specific accounting guidance for a lessee, lessor, and sale and leaseback transactions. Lessees and lessors are required to disclose qualitative and quantitative information about leasing arrangements to enable a user of the financial statements to assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with the classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. The guidance is effective for the Company for fiscal year 2022 and requires a modified retrospective adoption, with early adoption permitted. Although the Company is currently evaluating the impact of this guidance on its condensed consolidated financial statements, the Company expects that most of its operating lease commitments will be recognized as operating lease liabilities and right-of-use assets upon adoption of the new guidance.
In June 2016, FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (ASU 2016-13). This update changes the accounting for recognizing impairments of financial assets, such that credit losses for certain types of financial instruments will be estimated based on expected losses. The update also modifies the impairment models for available-for-sale debt securities and for purchased financial assets with credit deterioration since their origination. ASU 2016-13 is effective for the Company in fiscal year 2023. Early adoption is permitted after for periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company has not yet determined the potential effects of this new accounting guidance on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other: Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (ASU 2017-04). ASU 2017-04 eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test which measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. Under ASU 2017-04, an entity should perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount, and should recognize an impairment loss for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value, with the loss not exceeding the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. ASU 2017-04 will be effective for the Company beginning on January 1, 2023. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed after January 1, 2017. At adoption, this update will require a prospective approach. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this new accounting guidance on its condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
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Note 3 – Fair Value Measurements
The following table sets forth the fair value of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities measured on a recurring basis by level within the fair value hierarchy (in thousands):
June 30, 2021
Level ILevel IILevel IIITotal
Financial Assets
Money market funds$38,101 $ $ $38,101 
Certificates of deposit 7,367  7,367 
Cash equivalents38,101 7,367  45,468 
Commercial paper 31,370  31,370 
Marketable securities 31,370  31,370 
Total Financial Assets$38,101 $38,737 $ $76,838 
December 31, 2020
Level ILevel IILevel IIITotal
Financial Assets
Money market funds(1)
$12,462 $ $ $12,462 
Commercial paper(1)
 7,199  7,199 
Cash equivalents12,462 7,199  19,661 
U.S. Treasury and government debt securities 8,999  8,999 
Commercial paper 10,794  10,794 
Marketable securities 19,793  19,793 
Total Financial Assets$12,462 $26,992 $ $39,454 
_______________
(1)The amounts were previously combined and presented as cash equivalents. Prior periods have been reclassified to conform with current period presentation.
The Company’s financial assets consist of Level I and II assets. The Company had no Level III assets or liabilities for the periods presented. The Company classifies its cash equivalents and marketable securities within Level I or Level II because they are valued using either quoted market prices or inputs other than quoted prices which are directly or indirectly observable in the market, including readily-available pricing sources for the identical underlying security which may not be actively traded. The Company’s fixed income available-for-sale securities consist of high quality, investment grade securities from diverse issuers. The valuation techniques used to measure the fair value of the Company’s marketable securities were derived from non-binding market consensus prices that are corroborated by observable market data and quoted market prices for similar instruments.
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Note 4 – Balance Sheet Components
Marketable Securities
The following table summarizes the Company’s marketable securities by significant investment categories (in thousands):
June 30, 2021
Amortized CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossFair Value
Commercial paper$31,370 $ $ $31,370 
Total$31,370 $ $ $31,370 
December 31, 2020
Amortized CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossFair Value
Commercial paper$10,794 $ $ $10,794 
U.S. Treasury and government debt securities$8,998 $1 $ $8,999 
Total$19,792 $1 $ $19,793 

The remaining contractual maturity of all marketable securities was within one year as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020. Realized gains and losses were not material for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020. As of June 30, 2021 and 2020, there were no securities that were in an unrealized loss position for more than twelve months.
Property, Equipment and Software, Net
Property, equipment and software, net consists of the following (in thousands):
June 30,
2021
December 31,
2020
Internal-use software$29,071 $24,513 
Network hardware, computer equipment and software80,675 62,764 
Leasehold improvements1,230 1,249 
Furniture and fixtures623 621 
Property, equipment and software, gross111,599 89,147 
Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization(67,998)(59,103)
Total property, equipment and software, net$43,601 $30,044 

Depreciation and amortization expense related to property, equipment, and software (excluding amortization of internal use software) was $3.4 million and $2.3 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and $6.3 million and $4.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
The Company capitalized $2.5 million and $1.7 million in software development costs during the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and $4.6 million and $3.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Amortization expense of internal use software was $1.8 million and $1.5 million
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during the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and $3.4 million and $2.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. These costs are included within cost of revenue in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.
The Company did not recognize any impairment charges on its long-lived assets during the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Accounts Payable
Accounts payable consists of the following (in thousands):
June 30,
2021
December 31,
2020
Payable to publishers$151,600 $168,673 
Other10,976 8,058 
Total accounts payable$162,576 $176,731 

Accrued Expenses
Accrued expenses consist of the following (in thousands):
June 30,
2021
December 31,
2020
Accrued compensation$10,796 $13,352 
Accrued and other current liabilities2,984 1,492 
Total accrued expenses$13,780 $14,844 

Note 5 – Loan and Security Agreement
In June 2021, the Company amended and restated its loan and security agreement with Silicon Valley Bank ("SVB") (the "Loan Agreement"). The Loan Agreement provides a senior secured revolving credit facility of up to $25.0 million or 80% of eligible accounts receivable less certain reserves, minus the aggregate principal amount of all outstanding advances. Interest accrues on advances under the revolving line of credit at a variable rate equal to the greater of prime rate or 3.25%. An unused revolver fee in the amount of 0.40% per annum of the average unused portion of the revolver line is charged and is payable quarterly in arrears in any quarter where the average closing outstanding balance is less than $5.0 million. As of June 30, 2021, the applicable interest rate under the revolving line of credit was 3.25% with a maturity date of June 6, 2024. As of June 30, 2021 there were no outstanding advances under the revolving line of credit.
The Company’s obligations under the line of credit and the letters of credit (described in Note 6) with SVB are secured by substantially all of its assets excluding its intellectual property. The Loan Agreement contains affirmative covenants including financial covenants that, among other things, require the Company to maintain an adjusted quick ratio of no less than 1.0 to 1.0. The adjusted quick ratio is defined as the ratio of unrestricted cash and cash equivalents at SVB, plus billed accounts receivable to total accounts payable plus all SVB loans outstanding and outstanding letters of credit. The Loan Agreement also restricts the Company from paying dividends to stockholders without prior consent from SVB. The Company was in compliance with the financial covenants as of June 30, 2021.
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Note 6 – Commitments and Contingencies
Operating Leases and Other Contractual Obligations
The Company has commitments for future payments related to office facilities leases and other contractual obligations. The Company leases its office facilities under operating lease agreements that expire over varying time periods through the year ending December 31, 2023. Certain of these lease agreements have free or escalating rent payment provisions or fund certain leasehold improvements, which the Company accounts as lease incentives. The Company recognizes rent expense under such agreements on a straight-line basis over the lease term, with any lease incentive amortized as a reduction of rent expense over the lease term. The Company also has other contractual obligations expiring over varying time periods through the year ending December 31, 2024. Other contractual obligations primarily relate to minimum contractual payments due to data center providers.
Future annual minimum commitments as of June 30, 2021, are as follows (in thousands):
Leases
Other
Contractual Obligations
2021 (for remaining 6 months)$982 $4,172 
20221,028 8,692 
2023109 6,285 
2024 3,629 
Total future minimum commitments, net$2,119 $22,778 
Rent expense, net of sublease income, incurred under operating leases was $0.5 million and $0.6 million for three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and $1.1 million and $1.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Rent expense was offset by sublease income of $0.1 million for the three months ended June 30, 2020 and $0.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020. No rent expense was offset by sublease income for the six months ended June 30, 2021.
Letters of Credit
As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had an irrevocable letter of credit outstanding related to noncancelable facilities leases in the amounts of $0.7 million, with annual automatic renewal and final expiration date in June 2022.
Legal Matters
From time to time, the Company has become involved in claims and other legal matters arising in the normal course of business. The Company investigates these claims as they arise and accrues for contingencies when the Company believes that a loss is probable and that the Company can reasonably estimate the amount of any such loss. The Company has made an assessment of the probability of incurring any such losses and whether or not those losses are estimable and although claims are inherently unpredictable the Company concluded that these losses are not material to the Company’s business, financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. To the extent there is a reasonable possibility that a loss exceeding amounts already recognized may be incurred, and the amount of such additional loss would be material, the Company will either disclose the estimated additional loss or state that such an estimate cannot be made.
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Indemnification
In the normal course of business, the Company enters into contracts and agreements that contain a variety of representations and warranties and provide for general indemnification. The Company’s exposure under these agreements is unknown because it involves future claims that may be made against the Company but have not yet been made. To date, the Company has not paid any material claims or been required to defend any actions related to its indemnification obligations. However, the Company may record charges in the future as a result of these indemnification obligations. In addition, the Company has indemnification agreements with certain of its directors and executive officers that require it, among other things, to indemnify them against certain liabilities that may arise due to their status or service as directors or officers of the Company. The terms of such obligations may vary.
Note 7 – Convertible Preferred Stock
Upon completion of the IPO in December 11, 2020, all shares of convertible preferred stock outstanding, totaling 33,443,969 shares, were automatically converted into an equivalent number of shares of Class B common stock on a one-to-one basis and their carrying value of $61.2 million was reclassified into stockholders’ equity. As of June 30, 2021, there were no shares of convertible preferred stock issued and outstanding.
In connection with the IPO, the Company’s restated certificate of incorporation became effective, which authorized the issuance of 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with a par value of $0.0001 with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by the Company’s board of directors.
Note 8 – Stockholders’ Notes Receivable and Redeemable Common Stock
In August 2018, the Company loaned its Chief Executive Officer and Chief Growth Officer a total of $4.0 million under secured nonrecourse promissory notes (the “Notes”). The Notes bore interest at a rate of 2.42% per annum compounded annually and had a maturity date of August 30, 2021, with interest and principal due at maturity. The Notes were secured by pledges of 1.6 million shares of outstanding common stock of the Company owned by the two officers (the “Pledged Shares”). The Notes could be prepaid in cash at any time without penalty. At maturity and in certain events of default, the Notes could, at the option of the two officers, be repaid in cash or surrender and cancellation of the Pledged Shares at fair market value. If the Pledged Shares were insufficient to repay the entire amount due under the Notes, then the value of the Pledged Shares would be deemed to be the full amount due under the Notes.
As the Company’s only recourse on the Notes and associated interest was the Pledged Shares, the Notes were accounted for as nonrecourse and recorded to stockholders’ equity as of June 30, 2020. This was accounted for as though the Company repurchased the Pledged Shares and in exchange issued the Notes and granted 1.6 million fully vested stock options with an exercise price equal to the face value of Notes plus interest. No principal or interest payments were paid during the three months ended June 30, 2020. During the quarter ended September 30, 2020, all principal and interest due under the notes were prepaid.
In connection with the Notes, the Company provided the officers with a right to sell to the Company outstanding shares of common stock upon settlement of the Notes (the “Put Option”). The officers could only exercise the Put Option upon repayment of the Notes using the Pledged Shares or upon the prepayment of the Notes using proceeds from the officers’ sale or disposal of the Pledged Shares at a price less than the face value of the Notes. The Put Option allowed the officers to require the Company to repurchase any or all common stock held or beneficially owned to offset their tax liabilities resulting from the settlement of the Notes via one of the above methods. As the exercisability of the Put Option and therefore redemption of the common stock was outside the control of the Company, all common stock held or beneficially owned by the officers required temporary equity classification. The Company therefore classified $19.0 million of common stock outside of stockholders’ equity as of June 30, 2020, which represented the fair value of the shares held or beneficially owned on the transaction date. The Company did not adjust the carrying value of the redeemable common stock during the three months ended June 30, 2020 since a redemption event was not probable. The Put Option expired unexercised upon the repayment of the Notes and during the Company’s quarter ended September 30, 2020, the $19.0 million of redeemable common stock was reclassified back to common stock.
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Note 9 – Stockholders’ Equity and Stock Option Plans
Common Stock
In connection with the IPO in December 2020, the Company’s restated certificate of incorporation became effective, which authorized 1,000,000,000 shares of Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 1,000,000,000 shares of Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value per share. Class A and Class B common stock are referred to as common stock throughout the notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements, unless otherwise noted.
Equity Incentive Plans
Upon completion of the IPO, the Company adopted the 2020 Equity Incentive Plan (“2020 Plan”), pursuant to which the Company may grant stock options, restricted stock awards, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock units (“RSUs”), deferred stock units (“DSUs”) performance awards, and stock bonus awards. As of June 30, 2021, the Company has reserved 6,434,712 shares of Class A common stock for the issuance of awards under the 2020 Plan. These available shares will increase automatically on January 1 for each of the first ten calendar years during the term of the 2020 Plan by the number of shares equal to the lesser of five percent (5%) of the aggregate number of outstanding shares of all classes of the Company’s common stock outstanding as of the immediately preceding December 31, or a number as may be determined by the Company’s board of directors or compensation committee. To the extent outstanding awards under the 2017 Plan and the 2006 Plan are forfeited, lapse unexercised, or would otherwise have been returned to the share reserve under the Prior Plans, the shares of Class B common stock subject to such awards instead will be available for future issuance as Class A common stock under the 2020 Plan. No new awards were issued under the 2006 Plan or 2017 Plan after the effective date of the 2020 Plan.
Stock Options
A summary of stock option activity under the Company’s equity incentive plan and related information is as follows:

Stock Options
Number of Shares Underlying Outstanding OptionsWeighted-Average Exercise PriceWeighted Average Remaining Contractual Term (Years)Aggregate Intrinsic Value (in thousands)
Outstanding — December 31, 20208,459,969 $2.53 6.83$215,144 
Options granted660,466 $36.74 
Options exercised(1,078,838)$1.93 
Options canceled/expired(14,484)$6.80 
Outstanding — June 30, 20218,027,113 $5.42 6.98$270,368 
Vested — June 30, 20215,098,040 $2.71 5.91$185,399 

As of June 30, 2021, unrecognized stock-based compensation of $20.9 million related to unvested stock options will be recognized on a straight-line basis over a weighted average period of 3.13 years.
Restricted Stock Units
A summary of RSU activity under the Company’s equity incentive plan and related information is as follows:
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RSUs
Number of SharesWeighted-Average Grant Date Fair Value per Share
Unvested — December 31, 2020 $ 
Granted463,812 $36.05 
Vested(21,973)$40.34 
Canceled/Forfeited(781)$31.91 
Unvested — June 30, 2021441,058 $35.84 
As of June 30, 2021, unrecognized stock-based compensation of $15.0 million related to unvested RSUs will be recognized on a straight-line basis over a weighted average period of 3.60 years.
2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan
In November 2020, the Company’s board of directors adopted, and its stockholders approved, the 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”), which became effective in connection with the IPO. A total of 500,000 shares of the Company’s Class A common stock were initially reserved for issuance under the ESPP.
The aggregate number of shares reserved for issuance under the ESPP will increase automatically on January 1st of each of the first ten calendar years during the term of the ESPP by the number of shares equal to the lesser of (a) 1% of the total outstanding shares of all classes of the Company’s common stock as of the immediately preceding December 31 and (b) such number of shares of common stock as determined by the Company’s board of directors. The aggregate number of shares issued over the term of the ESPP may not exceed 7,500,000 shares of Class A common stock. As of June 30, 2021, the Company has reserved 834,866 shares of its common stock for issuance under the ESPP.
Under the ESPP, Class A common stock will be purchased for the accounts of employees participating in the ESPP on each purchase date at a price per share equal to 85% of the lesser of: (a) the fair market value on the offering date or (b) the fair market value on the purchase date. The ESPP provides for, at maximum, 27 month offering periods and each offering period may consist of one or more six-month purchase periods, beginning December 9, 2020 through May 31, 2022 with the purchase date on the last day of each purchase period. As of June 30, 2021, $0.4 million has been withheld on behalf of employees for a future purchase under the ESPP due to the timing of payroll deductions and is included in accrued and other current liabilities. For the six months ended June 30, 2021, 155,015 shares of our Class A common stock have been purchased under the ESPP.
As of June 30, 2021, unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to the ESPP was $3.6 million, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 0.92 years.
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Stock-Based Compensation
The total stock-based compensation recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income is as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Cost of revenue$204 $11 $372 $21 
Technology and development579 80 1,060 155 
Sales and marketing1,290 183 2,451 363 
General and administrative1,556 226 2,911 456 
Total stock-based compensation3,629 500 6,794 995 
Tax benefit from stock-based compensation(500)(44)(880)(83)
Total stock-based compensation, net of tax effect$3,129 $456 $5,914 $912 


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Note 10 – Net Income Per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders
The following table sets forth the computation of the Company’s basic and diluted net income per share (in thousands, except share and per share data):
Three Months Ended June 30,
20212020
Class AClass BClass AClass B
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Numerator:
Net income$3,880 $6,041 $ $653 
Less: Undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities$ $ $ $(653)
Reallocation of net income attributable to common stockholders$(1,366)$1,366 $ $ 
Net income attributable to common stockholders – basic$2,514 $7,407 $ $ 
Denominator:
Weighted average common shares outstanding – basic12,565,379 37,013,157  10,106,560 
Net income per share attributable to common stockholders – basic:$0.20 $0.20 $ $ 
Numerator:
Net income attributable to common stockholders - diluted$2,244 $7,677 $ $ 
Denominator:
Weighted average shares outstanding – basic12,565,379 37,013,157  10,106,560 
Options to purchase common stock28,310 6,650,176  3,957,942 
Restricted stock58,112    
Employee stock purchase plan shares113,077    
Weighted average shares outstanding – diluted12,764,878 43,663,333  14,064,502 
Net income per share attributable to common stockholders – diluted$0.18 $0.18 $ $ 
The following weighted-average outstanding shares of common stock equivalents were excluded from the computation of diluted net income per share attributable to common stockholders for the periods presented because including them would have been anti-dilutive:
Three Months Ended June 30,
20212020
Class AClass BClass AClass B
Options to purchase common stock
665,398724,701
Common stock issuable upon conversion of convertible preferred stock
33,443,969
Total excludable from net income per share attributable to common stockholders – diluted
665,39834,168,670
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Six months ended June 30,
20212020
Class AClass BClass AClass B
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Numerator:
Net income$5,804 $9,035 $ $1,559 
Less: Undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities$ $ $ $(1,559)
Reallocation of net income attributable to common stockholders$(2,879)$2,879 $ $ 
Net income attributable to common stockholders – basic$2,925 $11,914 $ $